- Adult-onset asthma
Understanding the key reason of adult-onset asthma and identifying unique phenotypes may help in better understanding of pathophysiology and treatment response, allowing people to better focus current and future treatments for individualised management. The asthma that de Read More
- Allergic granulomatosis
Allergic granulomatosis is an allergy that causes inflammation of the blood vessels. This inflammation leads to major passageways getting blocked affecting breathing or swallowing. When an adult develops asthma, it can be a sign of allergic granulomatosis. It is also known as Churg-Straus syndrome or eosinophilic granu Read More
- Allergic granulomatosis and angiitis
Allergic granulomatosis and angiitis or Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis is a condition that affects the small blood vessels and capillaries in the body. It is an extremely rare condition and causes inflammation of these small blood vessels that leads to blocking of the airways and other passages in the bo Read More
- Allergy (allergies)
Allergies are reactions of the immune system to any foreign particle that enters the body. The immune system plays a vital role in protecting the body from infections. The production of antibodies to counter the antigens of the pathogen triggers a reaction causing the release of eosinophils. This leads to the inflammat Read More
- Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency
The Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency is a condition or disease that causes the body to not produce enough Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) protein. This protein is majorly produced in the liver and provides protection in the form of being a shield for the body tissues and preventing these body tissues from suffering any damage Read More
When a person suffers from allergies, certain allergens can trigger a reaction and cause swelling in the body. While most of the time, these conditions are not life-threatening, there are instances when the throat swells up so much that it restricts the airflow to the lungs while chemicals r Read More
- Apeced syndrome
APECED syndrome or Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy syndrome is a genetic disorder. People suffering from apeced syndrome have inherited it from their parents. As the name suggests, apeced syndrome is an autoimmune disorder and multiple organs are affected. In an autoimmune disorder, the b Read More
Asthma symptoms differ from one person to the next. The person may have rare asthma episodes, experience symptoms just at specific times of the day, such as when exercising, or experience symptoms all of the time.The following are some of the indications and symptoms of asthma: Read More
- Asthma in children
In childhood asthma, the lungs and airways become easily inflamed when exposed to certain triggers, such as inhaling pollen or catching a cold or other respiratory infection. Childhood asthma can cause bothersome daily symptoms that interfere with play, sports, school and sleep. In some children, unmanaged asthma can cause dangerous asthma attacks.
Childhood asthma isn't a different disease from asth Read More
The risk factors for blastomycosis, a fungal infection caused by the dimorphic fungus, are immunocompromised patients or people who need to work outdoor especially in forest areas. If you live in an area where fungal spores are in abundance, then you are at a high-risk factor for the disease. The fungal spores are in plentiful at damp forests, so if your profession is hunter, forest worker, camper or a farmer, you might be at a higher risk to get Read More
- Bocavirus infection
Bocavirus infection is a viral infection which causes common cold and other respiratory infections. The most common symptoms are cold, fever, runny nose, and cough. It may also cause gastroenteritis, a stomach flu that causes irritation and inflammation of the stomach and intestines. Diarrhea might affect the patient in the case of gastroenteritis.Human bocavirus has been reported throughout the world. Paediatric cases are the most common. Often Read More
- Bronchitis (acute)
Bronchitis is an infection that affects the lungs' major airways (bronchi), causing irritation and inflammation. Bronchitis can be classified into two types: acute and long-term. Chronic bronchitis is a long-term problem that can come back. It is usually caused by long-term stress, like smoking. Acute bronchitis is short-lived. Most cases go away in a few days, but the cough may last for a few weeks. Each side of your windpipe has its own set of Read More
- Chronic bronchitis
Chronic Bronchitis is a subtype of COPD which stands for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. COPD belongs to the family of lung infections and diseases which can make breathing difficult and progressively worsen over time. Other than COPD, emphysema is the other main type of COPD. Most people who have COPD have both emphysema and chronic bronchitis, but the severity of each type varies from person to person.Chronic bronchitis is a condition i Read More
- Copd (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease)
COPD is a long-term lung disease that causes blocked airflow from the lungs. People who have asthma have trouble breathing, cough, cough up mucus (sputum), and wheeze. It is most often caused by exposure to irritating particles or gases over a long period of time, such as cigarette smoke. COPD patients are more likely to get heart disease, lung cancer, and a lot of other things.A lot of the time, COPD is caused by emphysema and chronic bronchitis Read More
- Costochondritis and tietze's syndrome
Costochondritis is an inflammation of the joints that connect the ribs to the breast bone. Costochondritis can be caused by genetics, viruses, or even an accident. Costochondritis may be a separate medical condition or a sign of a bigger problem.If a person has chest pain and tenderness in the cartilage next to their breastbone, they may have costochondritis. This is based on their history of these symptoms. Most people face symptoms like pain Read More
Croup is a common childhood illness that causes the upper respiratory tract to swell. This may manifest itself through a change in tone of voice and a distinctive "croupy" cough that sounds like a seal or barking. Numerous viruses have been identified as the cause of croup, with the parainfluenza virus being the most prevalent.Congestion of the nose, coughing, sore throat, and fever are all symptoms of infection. In children, upper airway swel Read More
- Cryptococcosis lung
Most people don't get Cryptococcosis of the lung, which is caused by Cryptococcus neoformans. People who are immunocompromised, especially those who have the human immunodeficiency virus, are more likely to get severe pneumonia from this microorganism (HIV). It can also hurt them. Those who are immune-competent, on the other hand, are rarely infected by this organism, don't usually show any signs of having it. If you're healthy, there aren't m Read More
- Cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis
When there is a disease in the lung called cryptogenic fibrous alveolitis, it is called an interstitial lung disease (or ILD for short). They affect the tissues that support air sacs in the lungs, making it hard for them to take in as much air as the body needs for good health. A person who has fibrosing alveolitis has thick and scarred lungs that are hard to breathe through. Over time, they become less flexible, which makes it hard to breathe Read More
- Degos disease
Degos disease is a very rare disease in which the arteries, which are small and medium-sized, get blocked restricting the proper flow of blood to the affected areas. Also, you may experience skin lesions, and these skin lesions can last from weeks to years depending on the amount of damage. Most people develop lesions on the skin only, but in some severe cases, damage may be caused to the intestines as well. Apart from lesions on the inte Read More
The word dolichostenomelia is derived from the Greek terms 'dolichos', 'steno' and 'melia' meaning long, narrow and of the limbs, respectively. It is a condition in human beings in which the limbs of a person are uncommonly long and narrow. It primarily affects the connective tissue. It is a popular symptom of different hereditary diseases, such as Marfan syndrome and Homocystinuria.
Marfan Syndrome: A rare autosomal dominant Read More
Emphysema is a lung condition that commonly develops after a prolonged period of smoking. Chronic bronchitis and emphysema are both parts of the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) group of lung disorders (COPD). COPD refers to a collection of lung disorders that make breathing difficult and worsen over time. Chronic bronchitis is the other major kind of COPD. Most patients with COPD have both emphysema and chronic bronchitis, however Read More
- Extrinsic allergic pneumonia
Extrinsic Allergic Pneumonia, also known as Allergic Interstitial Pneumonitis, Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis, is a kind of inflammatory syndrome, more specifically, a lung disorder. Breakdown of the nameExtrinsic: origin is an outside matter – antigen.
Allergic: An allergic reaction from the antigen is the cause.
Pneumonia: inflammation within the lungs.
There are variations in the syndrome depending upon the antig Read More
- Fibrosing alveolitis
Fibrosing Alveolitis or Pulmonary Fibrosis is a condition of the lungs that affects the tissues supporting the air sacs. Hence, it’s harder for them to absorb enough oxygen that the body needs for respiration purposes. In this condition, the lung tissues thicken and are scarred, resulting in decreased elasticity of the organ, thereby making breathing an arduous task. Symptoms of Fibrosing Alveolitis: Dry cough, Shortness of breath, Chest Read More
- Formalin toxicity
Formaldehyde is a transitional molecule involved in a variety of biological activities. It's present in a variety of common goods, including meals. It's also used in medication to cure a variety of disorders. A 40 per cent formaldehyde solution in water is known as formalin. It is a poisonous, caustic chemical that can be acquired via the skin. Formaldehyde is a kind of formaldehyde that is commonly referred to as formalin. "Formaldehyde Read More
- Hashimoto's disease
Chronic Lymphocytic Thyroiditis, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and Chronic Autoimmune Thyroiditis are all term used for describing Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Hashimoto's illness causes the thyroid gland to gradually stop producing enough hormones to keep the body operating correctly, leading in hypothyroidism. Hashimoto's disease affects women in their forties more than men, and it causes exhaustion and excess weight.Chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis, Read More
- Hashimoto's thyroiditis
This is an inflammatory disease that affects the thyroid gland. Hashimoto's thyroiditis is the most common type of thyroiditis. When your body produces antibodies that attack thyroid cells, this condition develops. The thyroid gland does not seem to be able to produce enough thyroid hormone. Many people with this condition have an underactive thyroid. This disorder is also known as hypothyroidism. They must take medication to control thei Read More
Histoplasmosis is an infection caused by the Histoplasma fungus. The fungus can be found in the environment, especially in soil with a lot of bird or bat droppings. Histoplasma is found primarily in the central and eastern regions of the United States, particularly in the Ohio and Mississippi River valleys. Parts of Central and South America, Africa, Asia, and Australia are also home to the fungus. People can contract histoplasmosis by inhalin Read More
- Juvenile laryngeal papilloma
Laryngeal Papilloma is a respiratory disease that obstructs airflow from the body. Juvenile Laryngeal Papilloma is a rare condition causing overgrowths in the passage from the nose to the lungs. It majorly occurs in the vocal cords of children and adults.
This condition is also known as recurrent respiratory Papilloma.
It is a rare disorder where tumors grow inside the respiratory tract of childre Read More
- Lambert-eaton myasthenic syndrome
Lambert-eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS) is a rare condition where the patient suffers from muscle weakness, fatigue, and symptoms, like dry mouth.
Here is a list of some facts about the disease:
The term myasthenic means the loss of muscles and muscle weakness.
The disease is an autoimmune disease. The immune system of the body attacks its tissues.
The attack occ Read More
- Laryngeal papilloma
Laryngeal Papilloma is a rare medical condition in which non-cancerous tumors form along the aerodigestive tract. Laryngeal Papilloma grows inside the voice box, vocal cords, or the air passage from the nose to the lungs. The symptoms include breathing problems, difficulty swallowing, coughing, and hoarseness. Laryngeal Papilloma is a condition that has been researched in detail, but a cure is yet found.
- Loeffler's disease
Loeffler's disease is a transient respiratory illness associated with the higher production of a type of disease-fighting white blood cell usually called eosinophils in the lungs.
Loeffler's disease or syndrome is also recognized as Transient Pulmonary Infiltrate with Eosinophilia Syndrome. This syndrome involves the regulation of eosinophils in the lungs in response to a parasite infection.
In th Read More
Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a condition that occurs due to abnormal growth of smooth muscle cells, especially in the lymphatic systems and the lungs. This growth leads to the formation of cysts or holes in the lungs.
People suffering from Lymphangioleiomyomatosis have a hard time breathing because it is challenging for them to inhale and exhale air through the bronchial tubes. Also, replacing normal lung tissue with Read More
- Malignant carcinoid syndrome
Malignant carcinoid syndrome is characterized by a variety of signs and symptoms. Carcinoid tumors are neuroendocrine tumors that develop from primitive stem cells that can give rise to a variety of cell types.
When a rare malignant tumor called a carcinoid tumor secretes particular chemicals into your bloodstream, it causes a variety of indications and symptoms. The most common areas for carcinoid tumors, which are a form of ne Read More
- Necrotizing respiratory granulomatosis
Necrotizing Sarcoid Granulomatosis (NSG) is a rare granulomatous illness that primarily affects the lungs and manifests as nodular masses of confluent sarcoid-like granulomas with severe necrosis and vasculitis. It was first described in 1973, as a lung granulomatous disease with sarcoid-like granulomas, vasculitis, and varying degrees of necrosis.
Necrotizing sarcoid granulomatosis is considered a variant of sarcoidosis.
- Occupational asthma
Over 250 industrial chemicals have been identified as potential triggers for occupational asthma. These are some of the substances:
Phthisis, also known as pulmonary tuberculosis, is one of the most common illnesses that humans face. It affects people of all ages, from all walks of life, and in every country.
While phthisis may affect almost every organ in the body, the most commonly affected organ is the lungs. It is commonly known as acute tuberculosis.
Close communication with an individual who has miliary phthisis, living in filthy surrou Read More
- Pleurisy (pleuritis)
Pleurisy (pleuritis) is a health condition that occurs when the pleura, the thin layer of tissue that covers the lungs, becomes inflamed. Pleurisy (pleuritis) can be caused by a variety of things, including viruses, bacteria, and even lung cancer.
When the pleurae (membrane lining the thoracic cavity and the lungs) are swollen or inflamed, they may rub against each other, resulting in severe chest pain.
Each time Read More
Pneumonia is an inflammatory infection that develops in the lungs. This disease fills up air sacs with fluid or pus that leads to cough with phlegm, fever, and difficulty in breathing.
We inhale air from the nose or mouth that reaches to lungs through Trachea, commonly known as the windpipe. Afterward, oxygen will automatically travel to air sacs through bronchi surrounded by the network of fine capillaries (thin and tiny blood Read More
- Pneumothorax (collapsed lung)
Pneumothorax (collapsed lung) is a medical condition in which either the lungs collapse on the whole or only a portion of the lungs collapse. In this condition, the air enters the area between the lungs and chest wall known as a plural stag.
In minor cases, Pneumothorax (collapsed lung) may not reflect any symptoms and heal on its own. But in major cases, the person might experience certain chest pain and shortness o Read More
- Primary central hypoventilation syndrome
Primary central hypoventilation syndrome is a disorder affecting normal breathing.
It causes people to take shallow breaths resulting in a lack of oxygen and accumulation of carbon dioxide in the blood.
The component of the nervous system that controls involuntary body processes would normally respond to such an imbalance by encouraging the person to breathe deeper or wake up.
People Read More
- Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis
Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis is a lung disorder characterized by a build-up of proteins, lipids, and other substances (together known as surfactants) in the lungs' air sacs, or alveoli. The alveoli are the air-holding cells in the lungs. The exchange of gases between the lungs and the blood takes place here.
The alveoli become filled with a surfactant, they do not work properly, and breathing becomes difficult.
The c Read More
- Pulmonary angiitis
Pulmonary angiitis is a term used to describe a collection of disorders with both a vascular (angiitis) and granulomatous components. It means inflammation of blood vessels in the lungs.
There are five unique clinical syndromes that have been identified, including:
Polyangiitis with eosinophilic granulomatosis (previously known as Churg-Strauss syndrome)
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with Read More
- Pulmonary edema
Pulmonary edema is a disease that is caused due to congestion of liquid substances in the lungs. It is also known as pulmonary congestion. It is related to our respiratory system. When you get this disease, there may be a high risk of respiratory system failure.
You may get this disease due to the following circumstances:
Failure of the heart to pump blood
Injury to the lung due to breathing toxic g Read More
- Pulmonary fibrosis
Damage and scarring in lung tissue lead to pulmonary fibrosis. The scars thicken the tissue around and between the air sacs in your lungs, making it difficult for oxygen to pass into the bloodstream.
The reason for scarring can be multiple causes, but in most cases, doctors can’t find the exact reason for the wound. Such conditions are known as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.
Exposure to numerous toxins and Read More
- Pulmonary hypertension
Pulmonary hypertension is a life-threatening illness if not taken care of properly. If diagnosed, treatments can alleviate the symptoms and help you live with the disease more comfortably. High blood pressure in the arteries that run from your heart to your lungs is known as Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH).
The small arteries in your lungs get narrowed or obstructed as a result of PAH. Blood has a harder time flowing throu Read More
- Pulmonary infiltrates with eosinophilia
Pulmonary Infiltrates with Eosinophilia (PIE) is inflammation due to increased eosinophils, a type of white blood cell.
Pulmonary infiltrates with eosinophilia can be categorized into primary or idiopathic and secondary.
Primary pulmonary eosinophilia occurs because of unknown reasons like Acute Eosinophilic Pneumonia (AEP), Chronic Eosinophilic Pneumonia (CEP), Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polya Read More
- Pump lung
Pump lung, (also known as Shock Lung), is inflammatory lung damage.
Pump lung is caused by fluid buildup in the lungs' small air sacs (called alveoli), which makes breathing very difficult. It also results in severely low blood oxygen levels.
As a result of low blood oxygen levels, other organs like the brain, heart, kidneys, and stomach, are deprived of the oxygen they require to function. Pump Lung is rare and Read More
- Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis
Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis (RRP) is the respiratory condition characterised by the presence of recurrent wart-like growths called papillomas around the vocal cords in the respiratory tract.
It is caused by the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) that causes skin warts and genital warts HPV consists of 150 different subtypes most of them passing through genital contact as a result of sexual intercourse.
Recurrent respi Read More
- Respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infection
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is a common respiratory virus that causes cold-like symptoms. It commonly affects infants by the time they reach the age of two.
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection symptoms are minor in adults and older, healthy children, and they often resemble the common cold.
Some people, like infants aged 12 months and younger (infants), especially premat Read More
- Sarcoid of boeck
The sarcoid of boeck (sarcoidosis) is a chronic inflammatory disease that can affect any organ in the body, but most often involves the skin and lungs.
Sarcoid of boeck is characterized by the formation of small, round bumps (nodules) under the skin and in the lungs.
This condition was first described in the medical literature in 1869 by a German physician named Carl Boeck. It is also sometimes Read More
- Secondhand smoke
Secondhand smoke is the combination of smoke from the burning end of a cigarette and the smoke exhaled by the smoker. It is dangerous to both smokers and nonsmokers. Secondhand smoke contains more than 7000 chemicals, including 70 that can cause cancer.
Nonsmokers who are exposed to secondhand smoke are at an increased risk for lung cancer, heart disease, and other respiratory illnesses.
Pregnant women who are exposed Read More
Shingles is a medical condition that is caused by the reactivation of the chickenpox-causing virus in the body. Shingles are extremely painful but it isn’t life-threatening.
Shingles is a painful rash that occurs anywhere on the body for a single stripe of blisters. Moreover, it usually arises either on the left or right side of the main parts of the body that contains the chest, abdomen, pelvis, and back. Read More
Torulosis is an airborne disease. It is more famously referred to as cryptococcosis.
When you inhale infected dust, torulosis slowly spreads throughout your lungs, presenting as pneumonia. It could potentially be fatal. Sometimes, it can also make its way to the brain, where it appears as meningitis. Other parts of the body that could be at risk include the skin which shows up as several fluid-filled nodules with dead tissue.&nb Read More
- Upper respiratory tract infection
The respiratory system consists of a network of organs like the nose, mouth, voice box, windpipe, airways, lungs, blood vessels, and specific muscles. All work together in a coordinated manner and help in respiration.
Upper Respiratory Tract Infections (URTI) occurs in the nasal passage and the throat. It includes common cold, rhinitis (inflammation of the nasal cavity), sinusitis (when the air-filled spaces behind the nasal bon Read More
- Usual interstitial pneumonia (uip)
Usual Interstitial Pneumonia (UIP) is a radiologic and histopathologic pattern of interstitial lung disease.
The prognosis of usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) is poor as the current therapies related to it are of unproven value.
Moreover, the mean survival of a patient following diagnosis with UIP is approximately three years.
The person may also require lung transplantation in case of a f Read More