About extrinsic allergic pneumonia
What is extrinsic allergic pneumonia?
Extrinsic Allergic Pneumonia, also known as Allergic Interstitial Pneumonitis and Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis, is an inflammatory syndrome that affects the lungs. Extrinsic: the origin is an external matter - an antigen.
Allergic: The cause is an allergic reaction to the antigen.
Pneumonia is an inflammation of the lungs.
The syndrome differs depending on the antigen and the amount of exposure. Antigen exposure can be either domestic or industrial, depending on the environment. Extrinsic allergic pneumonia is caused by the continuous inhalation of antigens such as dust, bacteria, chemicals, bird feathers or droppings, bioaerosol, and so on. These antigens cause an allergic reaction, resulting in inflammation of the lungs (pneumonitis) in the alveoli and small airways (bronchioles). Extrinsic allergic pneumonia comes in several varieties.
Extrinsic allergic pneumonia is classified based on the antigens that cause the syndrome. There have been approximately 200 antigens discovered to date, some of which are discussed below. Bird Fancier's Lung and Farmer's Lung are the two most common types of Extrinsic allergic pneumonia.
1. Avian proteins are antigens in bird fancier's lung, bird breeder's lung, pigeon breeder's lung, and poultry worker's lung. It is caused by contact with feathers and bird droppings.
2. Toluene Diisocyanate (TDI), Hexamethylene Diisocyanate (HDI), or Methylene Bisphenyl Isocyanate (MDI) are antigens in chemical workers' lung-Isocyanate HP. This is caused by contact with paints, resins, and polyurethane foams.
3. Coffee bean protein is an antigen in the lungs of coffee workers. It is caused by prolonged contact with coffee bean dust.
4. Compost Lung is caused by compost exposure and contains Aspergillus as an allergen.
5. Detergent worker's disease, as the name implies, develops as a result of detergent exposure. The antigen is Bacillus subtilis enzymes.
6. Farmer's lung antigens include moulds such as Aspergillus species and bacteria such as Thermophilic actinomycetes, Thermoactinomyces vulgaris, Saccharopolyspora Rectivirgula, Absidia Corymbifera, and Eurotium Amstelodami. Farmers are particularly vulnerable when exposed to mouldy hay.
7. Japanese summer residence HP or summer-type Japanese HP is caused by prolonged exposure to damp wood and Japanese mats known as Tamai. Trichosporon Cutaneum is the name of the antigen.
8. Laboratory workers' lungs develop as a result of male rat urine protein acting as an antigen for the body.
9. In Miller's lung, the antigen Sitophilus Granarius (wheat weevil) enters the body when the person is exposed to dust-contaminated grain.
10. The antigen for Tap Water HP is unknown, but it results from exposure to contaminated tap water.
What are the symptoms for extrinsic allergic pneumonia?
Tachypnea symptom was found in the extrinsic allergic pneumonia condition
Extrinsic Allergic Pneumonia is lung inflammation caused by an allergic reaction to antigens in the environment. Extrinsic Allergic Pneumonia is characterised by difficulty breathing, dry coughs, sweating, chills, ache, fatigue, and wheezing. The important thing to remember is that not all patients exhibit Extrinsic Allergic Pneumonia symptoms. Antigens or allergens must be exposed for an extended period of time. The symptoms of the syndrome vary depending on the type of antigen and the amount of exposure - Acute, Subacute, and Chronic.
Acute Extrinsic Allergic Pneumonia symptoms include headache, dyspnea, cough, rashes, swelling, chest tightness, fever, malaise, and chills. These can happen after 4-6 hours of being exposed to the antigen or allergen. People who are hypersensitive to antigens are particularly vulnerable.
Subacute Extrinsic Allergic Pneumonia symptoms include fatigue, cough, anorexia, dyspnea, pleurisy, and weight loss. These symptoms, however, are less severe than those of Acute Extrinsic Allergic Pneumonia but last longer. These symptoms appear days to weeks after antigen exposure.
Chronic Extrinsic Allergic Pneumonia symptoms include cough, Rales (crackling sound while breathing), fever, Cyanosis (blue skin appearance), progressive dyspnea, tachypnea, and possibly expectoration of blood 3. These occur after months to years of antigen exposure; farmers and animal caregivers are particularly vulnerable. Patients with severe cases may develop pulmonary fibrosis, which can lead to respiratory failure, right heart failure, or both.
What are the causes for extrinsic allergic pneumonia?
Extrinsic allergic pneumonia, also known as Hypersensitivity pneumonia, is a type of lung inflammation that occurs when a person is exposed to antigens, causing a hypersensitivity reaction that leads to lung tissue inflammation. These substances cause an allergic immune response that constricts the alveoli and bronchiole. Fatigue, shortness of breath, cough, difficulty breathing, weight loss, fever, chest tightness, chills, and other symptoms are common.
There are numerous causes of extrinsic allergic pneumonia, which are all listed below: This disorder can be caused by airborne pollutants such as airborne moles. Extrinsic allergic pneumonia can also be caused by moulds and bacteria. The occupational setting is a significant factor in this disorder. People who are exposed to animal dust, work with birds, and are involved in the production of cheese, sugar, and other foods are at risk of developing this disorder. According to research, one of the causes of this lung inflammation is exposure to birds and their excreta. Radiation therapy for the lungs, chest, or entire body can result in hypersensitivity pneumonia. Farmers and agricultural workers are frequently exposed to a mould that grows on hay and grass, which causes pneumonitis. A farmer's lung is a specific term for this condition. Home humidifiers, heating systems, and indoor hot tubs can all harbour bacteria that cause this lung problem. Long-term exposure to bioaerosols and other chemicals in the plastic and paint industries also contributes to the development of this lung disorder.
What are the treatments for extrinsic allergic pneumonia?
Extrinsic allergic pneumonitis or extrinsic allergic alveolitis is a lung disorder caused by excessive inhalation of irritants such as organic dust in a specific environment. In the acute stage, respiratory symptoms such as fever, sneezing, wheezing, and throat and nostril irritation are common. The chronic form of the disease is caused by gradual degenerative issues and changes in lung tissue, as well as other respiratory problems such as asthma. The following are the treatments for the disease:
1. The identification of the allergen responsible is the first stage of treatment. This is required for the patient to initiate preventive measures in order to avoid redundant problems that could lead to further health deterioration.
2. Corticosteroid medications may be used if symptoms persist despite avoidance. In acute cases, the use of steroids in conjunction with preventive measures and adequate awareness can help reduce the severity of the symptoms.
3. When combined with extrinsic allergic pneumonitis, chronic respiratory ailments such as asthma and bronchitis may necessitate consultation with a pulmonologist for appropriate treatment.
4. Regular checks and breathing exercises can be beneficial. A pulmonary capacity test and chest scans may be required to determine the extent and stage of lung damage. Most of the time, an early diagnosis can help a person control the severity of their symptoms without invasive medical intervention. However, in the case of chronic stages of infection and degeneration in the lung tissues, the patient may find it difficult to recover as easily even with treatment, making it critical to be aware of allergens that may pose a threat to their bodies and systems. Consulting an immunologist if you have repeated and severe cases of allergic rhinitis can help you avoid serious problems.
What are the risk factors for extrinsic allergic pneumonia?
Extrinsic allergic pneumonia is a respiratory condition that primarily affects the lungs and lung tissue. This is caused by a variety of substances, particularly mould and bacteria in the agriculture, bird, plastic, paint, and mushroom farming industries, and is the result of an allergic immune reaction. Other causes include long-term exposure to allergens that cause an allergic reaction. The risk factors for extrinsic allergic pneumonia are as follows: Extrinsic allergic pneumonia is more common in certain occupations. Poultry workers, farmers, animal breeders, chemical industry workers, carpenters, and electronic industry workers are among them.
It should be noted that this is a rare disorder that only affects a small percentage of workers. It is estimated that 5% of workers are at risk of developing it. Farmers in the agriculture industry are susceptible to inhaling mould and hay while working in the field for planting and harvesting. Pesticides are the most common cause of pneumonitis, and workers are frequently exposed to them. Because they are constantly surrounded by bird feathers and droppings, bird handlers are at risk of developing this lung infection. Inhaling mould from home humidifiers for an extended period of time can increase the risk of developing extrinsic allergic pneumonia. Home hot tubs can also increase the risk. Genetics may play a role in increasing the risk of developing this disorder in some people. Another risk factor is prolonged exposure to antigens as a result of a hobby or job.
Is there a cure/medications for extrinsic allergic pneumonia?
Extrinsic allergic pneumonia or alveolitis is a lung disorder caused by repeated inhalation of organic dust, either animal or vegetable, particularly in an occupational setting. These particles are smaller than 5 microns in size and can enter the tiny sacs of our lungs where oxygen is exchanged with the blood. Respiratory symptoms and acute fever can appear several hours after dust inhalation, while lung tissue degeneration can occur after several years of exposure. Extrinsic allergic pneumonia treatment is heavily reliant on determining the underlying cause. Limiting exposure to the allergen in question may help alleviate the mild conditions. If that does not help, the use of masks is advised. People with chronic illnesses, on the other hand, may be advised to change jobs. Corticosteroid medications are usually prescribed if the symptoms persist, and in the case of an emergency, intravenous steroids may be required. However, if severe lung damage has already occurred, and such patients do not respond well to medications, these medications may not be sufficient. As a result, the earlier the diagnosis, the better the chances of successfully treating extrinsic allergic pneumonia. Nonetheless, an increasing number of investigations and clinical trials are underway, with the US government funding the studies and some being supported by a few private industries as well. This gives those suffering from long-term lung damage a ray of hope, as the research has so far yielded promising results.